Keywords and Identifiers

SQL statements are made up of three components:

  • Keywords: Keywords have specific meaning in SQL, like SELECT, CREATE, WHERE, etc.
  • Identifiers: Names for things like tables, columns, databases, etc.

Keywords

Keywords are special words that make up SQream DB’s SQL syntax, and have a meaning in a statement.

Keywords are not allowed as identifiers. A full list of reserved keywords can be found at the end of this document.

Identifiers

Identifiers are typically used as database objects names, such as databases, tables, views or columns. Because of their use, these are also often also called “names”.

Identifiers can also be used to change a column name in the result (column alias) in a SELECT statement.

Identifier rules

An identifier can be either quoted or unquoted, and are maximum 128 characters long.

Regular identifiers follow these rules:

  1. Does not contain any special characters, apart for an underscore (_)
  2. Case insensitive. SQream DB converts all identifiers to lowercase unless quoted.
  3. Does not equal any keyword, like SELECT, OR, AND, etc.

To bypass these limitations, use a quoted identifier by surrounding the identifier with double quotes (").

Quoted identifiers follow these rules:

  • Surrounded with double quotes (“).
  • May contain any ASCII character, except @, $ or ".
  • Quoted identifiers are stored case-sensitive and must be referenced with double quotes.

Reserved keywords

Keyword
ALL
ANALYSE
ANALYZE
AND
ANY
ARRAY
AS
ASC
AUTHORIZATION
BINARY
BOTH
CASE
CAST
CHECK
COLLATE
COLUMN
CONCURRENTLY
CONSTRAINT
CREATE
CROSS
CURRENT_CATALOG
CURRENT_ROLE
CURRENT_TIME
CURRENT_USER
DEFAULT
DEFERRABLE
DESC
DISTINCT
DO
ELSE
END
EXCEPT
FALSE
FETCH
FOR
FREEZE
FROM
FULL
GRANT
GROUP
HASH
HAVING
ILIKE
IN
INITIALLY
INNER
INTERSECT
INTO
IS
ISNULL
JOIN
LEADING
LEFT
LIKE
LIMIT
LOCALTIME
LOCALTIMESTAMP
LOOP
MERGE
NATURAL
NOT
NOTNULL
NULL
OFFSET
ON
ONLY
OPTION
OR
ORDER
OUTER
OVER
OVERLAPS
PLACING
PRIMARY
REFERENCES
RETURNING
RIGHT
RLIKE
SELECT
SESSION_USER
SIMILAR
SOME
SYMMETRIC
SYMMETRIC
TABLE
THEN
TO
TRAILING
TRUE
UNION
UNIQUE
USER
USING
VARIADIC
VERBOSE
WHEN
WHERE
WINDOW
WITH